Hodgkin lymphoma, sometimes known as Hodgkin's lymphoma, is a cancer of the lymphatic system.
Hodgkin lymphoma usually starts in the lymph nodes. But it can also affect other parts of the body, such as the spleen, bone marrow or liver. The most common area is the lymph nodes in the neck. Often several areas of lymph nodes around the body are affected.
About 1 in 5 (20%) of all diagnosed lymphomas are Hodgkin lymphoma. Around 1,700 people are diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma in the UK each year.
We have separate information about non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
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Types of Hodgkin lymphoma
There are two main types of Hodgkin lymphoma. Doctors can find out which type you have by examining some lymphoma cells under a microscope.
Classical Hodgkin lymphoma
This is the most common type of Hodgkin lymphoma. There are four sub-types:
- Nodular sclerosing
- Mixed cellularity
These sub-types are all treated in the same way.
Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL)
This is a rarer type of Hodgkin lymphoma. NLPHL develops and is treated differently to classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
Rarely, NLPHL can change into a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). If that happens, it is treated as NHL instead of Hodgkin lymphoma.
Doctors do not know the exact causes of Hodgkin lymphoma. But there are risk factors that can increase your chance of developing it.
Having one or more risk factors does not mean you will get Hodgkin lymphoma. Also, having no risk factors does not mean you will not develop Hodgkin lymphoma.
We have more information about the causes and risk factors for Hodgkin lymphoma.
If you have symptoms, you usually begin by seeing your GP. If they think your symptoms could be caused by cancer, they may arrange for you to have blood tests or scans. Your doctor will refer you to hospital for tests and for specialist advice and treatment.
If you think you may be pregnant, let your doctor know. Some tests and treatments can be harmful to a baby in the womb. Pregnant women can often still have tests for lymphoma. But, it is important to talk to your doctor so that can plan your care safely. We have more information about cancer and pregnancy.
Further tests for Hodgkin lymphoma
You will have more tests before you start treatment for lymphoma. Some tests help to show the stage of the lymphoma. You may have other tests, such as blood tests or x-rays to check your general health and how well your heart, lungs, liver and kidneys are working.
Information from these tests helps your doctors plan your treatment safely and effectively.
You may have some of the following tests:
Bone marrow sample
Waiting for test results can be a difficult time, we have more information that can help.
A team of specialists will meet to discuss the best possible treatment for you. This is called a multidisciplinary team (MDT).
Your doctor or cancer specialist or nurse will explain the different treatments and their side effects. They will also talk to you about things to consider when making treatment decisions.
If you have HIV and lymphoma, your lymphoma doctors and HIV doctors will work together to plan your treatment. We have more information about what this might involve.
Treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma will depend on the stage and type of Hodgkin lymphoma you have. These may include one or more of the following treatments:
Watch and wait
If you have nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL), your doctor may suggest that you do not need to start treatment straight away. Instead, you have regular tests and appointments to monitor the lymphoma and check for signs that you need to start treatment.
You may have some treatments as part of a clinical trial.
You have regular follow-up appointments after treatment. These appointments are a good opportunity for you to talk to your doctor or nurse about any concerns you have. Your doctor will want to know how you are feeling generally, and to check you are recovering from any side effects of treatment.
Sometimes a side effect may continue or develop months or years after treatment. This is called a late effect.
We have more information about long-term and late effects of treatment for lymphoma.
Everyone has their own way of dealing with illness and the different emotions they experience. You may find it helpful to talk things over with family and friends or your doctor or nurse.
Macmillan can offer emotional, practical and financial help and support. If you would like to talk, you can:
The organisations below also offer information and support:
Blood Cancer UK
Below is a sample of the sources used in our Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) information. If you would like more information about the sources we use, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org
Collins G, et al. Guideline on the management of primary resistant and relapsed classical Hodgkin lymphoma. British Journal of Haematology. 2014. 164: 39–52. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bjh.12582/pdf
Follows G, et al. Guidelines for the first line management of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. British Journal of Haematology. 2014. 166: 34–49. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bjh.12878/pdf
McKay P, et al. Guidelines for the investigation and management of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. British Journal of Haematology. 2016. 172: 32–43. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bjh.13842/epdf
Treleaven J, et al. Guidelines on the use of irradiated blood components prepared by the British Committee for Standards in Haematology blood transfusion task force. British Journal of Haematology. 2011. 152: 35–51. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2010.08444.x/full.
This information has been written, revised and edited by Macmillan Cancer Support’s Cancer Information Development team. It has been reviewed by expert medical and health professionals and people living with cancer. It has been approved by Senior Medical Editors, Dr Anne Parker, Consultant Haematologist; and Professor Rajnish Gupta, Macmillan Consultant Medical Oncologist.
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