Cancer of the vulva can affect any part of the external female sex organs. It is sometimes also called vulvar cancer.
Lichen planus (LP) is a skin condition that commonly affects the vulva. When it affects the skin of the vulva, it is known as vulval LP.
Vulval LP usually occurs in women in their 50s and 60s.
Vulval LP is not cancer. But a small number of women who have vulval LP may develop vulval cancer. It is very rare in women whose symptoms are well controlled. It is thought that, over a long period of time, the inflammation caused by this skin condition increases the risk of cancer developing.
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Vulval cancer symptoms can happen with conditions other than cancer. But it is important to get checked by your GP if you think you have any symptoms.
The most common symptoms of vulval cancer are:
- itching, burning or soreness of the vulva that does not go away
- a lump, swelling or wart-like growth on the vulva
- thickened, raised, red, white or dark patches on the skin of the vulva
- bleeding, or a blood-stained vaginal discharge, that is not related to periods
- burning pain when passing urine
- tenderness or pain in the area of the vulva
- a sore or ulcerated area on the vulva
- a mole on the vulva that changes shape or colour
- a lump in the groin.
All of these symptoms can happen with conditions other than cancer, but it is always important to get them checked by your GP.
Vulval cancer can take many years to develop. It usually starts with pre-cancerous cells that change slowly over several years into cancerous cells.
Vulval cancer is easier to treat and cure if it is diagnosed at an early stage.
The causes of vulval LP are unknown.
Some women have other family members with LP, so it is possible it may sometimes be caused by an inherited altered gene.
Some women with vuval LP also have an illness, such as thyroid problems or pernicious anaemia. Although these conditions can occur together, one disease does not cause the other.
It is not possible to get LP through sexual contact. It is a not sexually transmitted disease and is not infectious. LP is also not caused by hormonal problems or any allergic reaction.
Your GP will examine you and, if needed, refer you to a doctor who specialises in vulval conditions (gynaecologist) or a skin specialist (dermatologist).
You may need to have a small sample of cells taken from the affected area to be looked at under a microscope (a biopsy). This is usually done in the outpatients department.
Before a biopsy is taken, a local anaesthetic cream is used to numb the area. This usually takes around 10 minutes to work. A local anaesthetic is injected into the area using a small needle. A small sample of skin is then removed.
Very rarely, a general anaesthetic may be necessary if several samples are needed.
LP is usually treated with a strong steroid ointment that is applied to the affected area (topical treatment). Often a steroid called clobetasol proprionate (Dermovate®) is used. Your doctor, specialist nurse or the pharmacist will tell you how to use the ointment.
Topical steroid treatment can often control the symptoms very well, but you may need to use the ointment from time to time. Treating the inflammation with the steroid ointment may also make sex easier, as the skin is less likely to split if it is not inflamed.
The information leaflet with the steroid ointment may warn against using it on the genital area. However, this treatment is safe when prescribed by a specialist.
Sometimes, if the LP is very severe, you may be treated with a steroid foam that is put into the vagina. You may also be given steroid tablets for a short time.
Your doctor will also advise you to use a non-perfumed moisturiser instead of soap on the vulval area and to wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothes.
Surgery is rarely used to treat LP. It is only used to relieve problems caused by scarring, such as a narrowed vaginal opening. This can help if sex has become difficult or painful. Your doctor can give you more information.
For most women, vulval LP is a long-term condition that cannot be completely cured. But it is usually possible to control the symptoms, and you should not have any further shrinkage or scarring of the area.
You will normally have follow-up appointments until the LP is well controlled. Your specialist will give you more information.
Some women who have an uncommon thickened type of LP develop vulval cancer. This is not common but if you notice a sudden change in your symptoms or any ulcers or lumps, talk to your specialist doctor as soon as possible. Do not wait until your next appointment.
Everyone has their own way of coping with difficult situations. Some people find it helpful to talk to family or friends. Others prefer to seek help from people outside of their situation, such as a counsellor. Some people prefer to keep their feelings to themselves. There is no right or wrong way to cope, but help is available if you need it. Our cancer support specialists can give you support and information about counselling in your area.