Capecitabine is also known as Xeloda®. It is a chemotherapy drug that is used to treat many types of cancer.
Capecitabine (Xeloda®) is used to treat:
It may sometimes be used to treat other cancers.
Your doctor will talk to you about this treatment and its possible side effects before you agree (consent) to have treatment.
During treatment you usually see a cancer doctor, a chemotherapy nurse or a specialist nurse, and a specialist pharmacist. This is who we mean when we mention doctor, nurse or pharmacist in this information.
Before or on the day of treatment, a nurse or person trained to take blood (phlebotomist) will take a blood sample from you. This is to check that your blood cells are at a safe level for you to have chemotherapy.
You will see a doctor or nurse before you have chemotherapy. They will ask you how you have been feeling. If your blood results are okay, the pharmacist will prepare your chemotherapy. Your nurse will tell you when your treatment is likely to be ready.
Your course of chemotherapy
Capecitabine comes in tablets, so you can take it at home. Capecitabine may be given on its own, or with other chemotherapy drugs.
Chemotherapy is usually given as a course of several cycles of treatment over a few months. The treatment cycle may last 21, 28 or 35 days. This depends on your individual treatment plan. Your nurse or doctor will discuss your treatment plan with you.
The nurse or pharmacist will give you the tablets to take home. You may also get a copy of the treatment plan so you know when to take your drugs. Always take them exactly as explained. This is important to make sure they work as well as possible for you.
You may be given tablets of different strengths. The dose of chemotherapy that you are prescribed may change from one cycle to the next. This may be because of side effects or changes to your weight. It is very important that you know how many tablets to take each time you start a new cycle.
Your nurse or pharmacist may also give you anti-sickness drugs and other medicines to take home. Take all your capsules or tablets exactly as they have been explained to you.
Taking capecitabine tablets
Capecitabine is taken as tablets. The nurse or pharmacist gives you the capecitabine tablets to take at home. Always take your tablets exactly as explained. This is to make sure they work as well as possible for you.
You take capecitabine tablets twice a day. Swallow them whole with a glass of water within half an hour after eating a meal. Take the tablets in the morning after breakfast and then after your evening meal.
Tell your doctor if you find it difficult to swallow the tablets. They may suggest that you dissolve the capecitabine tablets in water. In this case, dissolve the tablets in a 200ml glass of warm water. Stir the water with a spoon until the tablets are completely dissolved and then drink it immediately. The glass and spoon should be washed and kept separate from your other crockery and cooking utensils.
If you forget to take a tablet, do not take a double dose. Keep to your regular schedule and let your doctor or nurse know. Other things to remember about your capsules:
- Keep them in the original package and at room temperature, away from heat and direct sunlight.
- Keep them safe and out of sight and reach of children.
- If you are sick just after taking the capsules or tablets, contact the hospital. Do not take another dose.
- If your treatment is stopped return any unused tablets to the pharmacist.
We explain the most common side effects of this treatment here. We also include some less common side effects.
You may get some of the side effects we mention, but you are unlikely to get all of them. If you are also having treatment with other cancer drugs, you may have some side effects that we have not listed here. Always tell your doctor, nurse or pharmacist about any side effects you have.
Your doctor can give you drugs to help control some side effects. It is important to take them exactly as your nurse or pharmacist explains. This means they will be more likely to work for you. Your nurse will give you advice about managing your side effects. After your treatment is over, most side effects start to improve.
Serious and life-threatening side effects
Some cancer treatments can cause severe side effects. Rarely, these may be life-threatening. Your cancer doctor, nurse or pharmacist can explain the risk of these side effects to you.
Rarely, capecitabine can cause severe or life-threatening side effects in people who have low levels of an enzyme called DPD. This is called DPD deficiency. You will not know before you start treatment whether you have DPD deficiency as there are no symptoms.
There are tests available which detect most cases of DPD deficiency, but not all cases. If you have DPD deficiency, this can affect the treatments that are available for you. Testing is available in some areas through the NHS. Some cancer centres across the UK will test all new patients.
Talk to your cancer doctor about the risk of you having DPD deficiency before you start treatment. You can ask what your options are if the test is not available through the NHS in your area.
Contact the hospital
Your nurse will give you telephone numbers for the hospital. If you feel unwell or need advice, you can call them at any time of the day or night. Save these numbers in your phone or keep them somewhere safe.
We cannot list every side effect for this treatment. There are some rare side effects that are not listed. You can visit the electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC) for more detailed information.
Risk of infection
This treatment can reduce the number of white blood cells in your blood. These cells fight infection.
If the number of white blood cells is low, you are more likely to get an infection. A low white blood cell count is called neutropenia.
If you have an infection, it is important to treat it as soon as possible. Contact the hospital straight away on the 24-hour contact number you have if:
- your temperature goes over 37.5°C (99.5°F)
- you suddenly feel unwell, even with a normal temperature
- you have symptoms of an infection.
Symptoms of an infection include:
- feeling shivery
- a sore throat
- a cough
- needing to pass urine often.
It is important to follow any specific advice your cancer treatment team gives you.
The number of white blood cells will usually return to normal before your next treatment. You will have a blood test before having more treatment. If your white blood cell count is low, your doctor may delay your treatment for a short time.
Bruising and bleeding
This treatment can reduce the number of platelets in your blood. Platelets are cells that help the blood to clot.
Tell your doctor if you have any bruising or bleeding that you cannot explain. This includes:
- bleeding gums
- tiny red or purple spots on the skin that may look like a rash.
Some people may need a drip to give them extra platelets. This is called a platelet transfusion.
Anaemia (low number of red blood cells)
This treatment can reduce the number of red blood cells in your blood. These cells carry oxygen around the body. If the number of red blood cells is low, you may be tired and breathless. Tell your doctor or nurse if you feel like this. If you are very anaemic, you may need a drip to give you extra red blood cells. This is called a blood transfusion.
Capecitabine may cause severe diarrhoea. Diarrhoea means passing more stools (poo) than is usual for you, or having watery or loose stools. If you have a stoma, it will be more active than usual.
Your hospital team may give you anti-diarrhoea drugs to take at home.
If you have diarrhoea or an increase in stoma activity:
- follow any advice from your hospital team about taking anti-diarrhoea drugs
- drink at least 2 litres (3½ pints) of fluids each day
- avoid alcohol, caffeine, milk products, high-fat foods and high-fibre foods.
Contact the hospital straight away if:
- you have diarrhoea at night
- you have diarrhoea more than 4 times in a day
- you have a moderate or severe increase in stoma activity
- the anti-diarrhoea drugs do not work within 24 hours.
Your doctor may ask you to stop taking capecitabine. When the diarrhoea is better, they will tell you if you can start taking it again. Sometimes they reduce the dose.
Soreness and redness of palms of hands and soles of feet
This is called palmar-plantar or hand-foot syndrome. The skin on these areas may feel sore or red and begin to peel. It gets better when treatment ends. Tell your doctor or nurse about any changes in your hands or feet. They can give you advice and creams to improve the symptoms. It can help to keep your hands and feet cool and to avoid tight-fitting socks, shoes and gloves.
You may feel sick in the first few days after this treatment. Your doctor will give you anti-sickness drugs to help prevent or control sickness. Take the drugs exactly as your nurse or pharmacist tells you. It is easier to prevent sickness than to treat it after it has started.
If you feel sick, take small sips of fluids and eat small amounts often. If you continue to feel sick, or if you vomit more than once in 24-hours, contact the hospital as soon as possible. They will give you advice and may change the anti-sickness drug to one that works better for you.
Changes to your taste
You may get a bitter or metal taste in your mouth. Sucking sugar-free sweets may help with this. Some foods may taste different or have no taste. Try different foods to find out what tastes best to you. Taste changes usually get better after treatment finishes. Your nurse can give you more advice.
This treatment can cause constipation. Here are some tips that may help:
- Drink at least 2 litres (3½ pints) of fluids each day.
- Eat high-fibre foods, such as fruit, vegetables and wholemeal bread.
- Do regular gentle exercise, like going for short walks.
If you have constipation, contact the hospital for advice. Your doctor can give you drugs called laxatives to help.
Loss of appetite
This treatment can affect your appetite. Do not worry if you do not eat much for a day or two. But if your appetite does not come back after a few days, tell your nurse or dietitian. They will give you advice. They may give you food or drink supplements.
You may get a sore mouth or mouth ulcers. This can make you more likely to get a mouth infection.
Use a soft toothbrush to clean your teeth or dentures in the morning, at night and after meals.
If your mouth is sore:
- tell your nurse or doctor – they can give you a mouthwash or medicines to help
- try to drink plenty of fluids
- avoid alcohol, tobacco, and foods that irritate your mouth.
This treatment may affect your skin. Your doctor or nurse can tell you what to expect. If your skin feels dry, try using an unperfumed moisturising cream every day. This treatment can also cause a rash, which may be itchy. Always tell your doctor or nurse about any skin changes. They can give you advice and may give you creams or medicines to help. Any changes to your skin are usually temporary and improve when treatment finishes.
Very rarely, capecitabine may cause a much more serious skin condition. You may have a skin rash which then blisters and your skin can peel. You may also feel unwell with flu-like symptoms such as a high temperature and joint pain. If you have these symptoms, you must stop taking the capecitabine and contact your doctor immediately.
Feeling tired is a common side effect. It is often worse towards the end of treatment and for some weeks after it has finished. Try to pace yourself and plan your day so you have time to rest. Gentle exercise, like short walks, can give you more energy. If you feel sleepy, do not drive or operate machinery.
Changes in the way the heart works
Capecitabine can affect the way your heart works. You may have tests to see how your heart is working before, during and sometimes after treatment. But it is still possible for your heart to be affected even if these tests are normal. Very rarely, this can cause heart failure or a heart attack. The risk of this happening is less than 1 in 100 (1%). This risk is very low but it is important that you know about it.
Tell a doctor immediately if you have any of these symptoms at any time during treatment:
- pain or tightness in your chest
- changes to your heartbeat.
If you have any of these symptoms, you should stop taking the capecitabine tablets until you have spoken to your doctor. Call your doctor or the 24-hour number the hospital has given you. If you cannot get through, call the NHS urgent advice number which is 111.
Your hair may get thinner but you are unlikely to lose all the hair from your head. Hair loss usually starts after your first or second treatment. It is almost always temporary and your hair will usually grow back after treatment ends. Your nurse can talk to you about ways to cope with hair loss.
Your eyes may become watery and feel sore. Your doctor can give you eye drops to help with this. If your eyes get red and inflamed (conjunctivitis), tell your doctor. You may need antibiotic eye drops.
This treatment may cause headaches. If this happens, tell your doctor or nurse. They can give you painkillers.
Sometimes capecitabine may cause dizziness. Let your doctor know if you feel dizzy. It is important not to drive or operate machinery if you notice these effects.
Sometimes capecitabine can cause sleeplessness (insomnia). Let your doctor know if you find it difficult to sleep.
You may get pain or discomfort in your tummy (abdomen). You may also feel bloated or have indigestion or wind. Your doctor can prescribe drugs to help improve these symptoms. Tell them if the pain does not improve or gets worse.
This treatment may cause hearing changes, including hearing loss. You may have ringing in the ears. This is called tinnitus. You may also become unable to hear some high-pitched sounds. Hearing changes usually get better after this treatment ends. But some can be permanent. Tell your doctor if you notice any changes in your hearing.
Blood clot risk
Cancer and some cancer treatments can increase the risk of a blood clot. Symptoms of a blood clot include:
- pain, redness or swelling in a leg or arm
- chest pain.
If you have any of these symptoms, contact a doctor straight away.
A blood clot is serious, but can be treated with drugs that thin the blood. Your doctor or nurse can give you more information.
Some medicines can affect how this treatment works or be harmful when you are having it. Always tell your cancer doctor about any drugs you are taking or planning to take, such as:
- medicines you have been prescribed
- medicines you buy in a shop or chemist
- vitamins, herbal drugs and complementary therapies.
Tell other doctors, pharmacists or dentists who prescribe or give you medicines that you are having this cancer treatment.
You can visit the electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC) for more detailed information about your treatment.
Your doctor will advise you not to get pregnant or make someone pregnant while having this treatment. The drugs may harm a developing baby. It is important to use contraception during your treatment and for a while after treatment finishes. Your doctor, nurse or pharmacist can tell you more about this.
Women are advised not to breastfeed while having this treatment. This is because the drugs could be passed to the baby through breast milk.
If you have sex during this course of chemotherapy, you need to use a condom. This is to protect your partner in case there is any chemotherapy in semen or vaginal fluids.
Medical and dental treatment
If you need medical treatment for any reason other than cancer, always tell the doctors and nurses that you are having cancer treatment. Give them the contact details for your cancer doctor so they can ask for advice.
If you think you need dental treatment, talk to your cancer doctor or nurse. Always tell your dentist you are having cancer treatment.
Your doctor or nurse may talk to you about vaccinations. These help reduce your risk of getting infections.
Doctors usually recommend that you have a flu jab, which is an inactivated vaccination. People with weak immune systems can have this type of vaccination.
If your immune system is weak, you need to avoid live vaccinations such as shingles. Your cancer doctor or GP can tell you more about live vaccinations.
We understand that people are worried about coronavirus (COVID-19). You may have questions about the different vaccines, or you may be worried about how the pandemic will affect your cancer treatment. We have detailed information about coronavirus and cancer treatment here.
Talk to an expert
We know cancer throws a lot your way, and right now, the coronavirus pandemic is making it even tougher. If you're worried about something, and you need to talk to someone, whatever is on your mind, we're here to listen.
To speak to our experts, you can: