Vaccines to treat cancer

Vaccines train the immune system to find and attack certain types of abnormal cells. They are commonly used to protect us from infections such as the flu, mumps or measles. Sometimes vaccines can be used to train the immune system to find and attack cancer cells.

A vaccine that prevents the infection tuberculosis (TB) is sometimes used after treatment for non-invasive bladder cancer. This is called BCG treatment.

Scientists and doctors are researching ways to make new vaccines that target cancer cells. They may be used to treat several types of cancer. They are usually only available as part of a research trial (clinical trial).

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Checkpoint inhibitors

Checkpoint inhibitors block signals that are stopping the immune system from attacking cancer cells.