Interferon alpha (IntronA®, Roferon-A®)

Interferon alpha is a biological therapy drug. It may be used to treat kidney cancer, melanoma, carcinoid tumours and some types of lymphoma and leukaemia. It is best to read this information with our general information about the type of cancer you have.

Interferon alpha is often called interferon for short. It is usually given as an injection under the skin (subcutaneously). You may have it as an outpatient. Your doctor or nurse will tell you how often you will have it.

Like all biological therapy drugs, interferon alpha can cause side effects. Some of the side effects can be serious, so it’s important to read the detailed information below. How targeted therapy affects people varies from person to person. Your healthcare team can talk to you more about this and give you advice on how to manage any side effects.

Tell your doctor or nurse straight away if you:

  • have a temperature
  • feel unwell 
  • have severe side effects, including any we don’t mention here. 

Rarely, side effects may be life-threatening. Your cancer doctor or nurse can explain the risk of these side effects to you.

If you need medical attention for any reason other than cancer, always tell the healthcare staff that you are having this treatment.

What is interferon?

Interferon alpha is a biological therapy that may be used to treat kidney cancermelanoma, carcinoid tumours and some types of lymphoma and leukaemia

During treatment, you will see a cancer doctor and a cancer nurse. This is who we mean when we mention doctor or nurse in this information.

How targeted therapies work

This animation shows how targeted therapies work and what effect they have on the body.

About our cancer information videos

How targeted therapies work

This animation shows how targeted therapies work and what effect they have on the body.

About our cancer information videos

How interferon works

Interferon is a protein the body makes in very small amounts. It can also be made outside the body and used as a drug.

Interferon stimulates the body’s immune system to fight some types of cancer. The immune system is the body’s defence against infection and disease.

Interferon may:

  • slow down or stop the cancer cells dividing
  • reduce the ability of the cancer cells to protect themselves from the immune system
  • strengthen the immune system.

How interferon is given

Interferon is given as an injection into the fatty tissue under the skin (subcutaneously). You can be taught how to give yourself the injections, or you may want a relative or carer to learn so they can help you. A district nurse or GP practice nurse can also give them to you. Your doctor or nurse will explain how often you will have the drug and how long treatment will last.

There are some important things to remember about interferon:

  • If you forget to take your injection, tell your doctor – don’t take a double dose.
  • Store it in the fridge and follow any instructions given by your pharmacist.
  • If your treatment is finished, return any remaining injections to the pharmacist.

Possible side effects of interferon

We have included the most common side effects of interferon. We have also included some less common and rare side effects. You may get some of the side effects we mention, but you will not get them all.

If you have chemotherapy along with interferon, some side effects may be worse. You may also have side effects not listed here. We have more information about chemotherapy and its side effects.

Your doctor can prescribe drugs to help control some side effects. It is very important to take them exactly as your nurse or pharmacist has explained.

Your nurse will give you advice about managing side effects. Always tell your doctor or nurse about any side effects you have. After your treatment is over, the side effects will start to improve.

Serious and life-threatening side effects

Some cancer treatments can cause severe side effects. Rarely, these may be life-threatening. Your cancer doctor or nurse can explain the risk of these side effects to you.

Contact the hospital

Your nurse will give you telephone numbers for the hospital. If you feel unwell or need advice, you can call them at any time of the day or night. Save these numbers in your phone or keep them somewhere safe.

More information

We cannot list every side effect for this treatment. There are some rare side effects that are not listed. You can visit the electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC) for more detailed information.

Flu-like symptoms

These include a high temperature, chills, headaches, and muscle and joint pains. You may get these symptoms soon after you start treatment. These symptoms can be quite severe at the start of your treatment with interferon, but usually become milder. Your doctor may advise you to take paracetamol to help with them.

Feeling tired

Feeling tired is a common side effect. Try to pace yourself and plan your day so you have time to rest. Gentle exercise, like short walks, can give you more energy. If you feel sleepy, do not drive or operate machinery.

Changes to your mood

Some people may have mood changes. These could be depression, anxiety, mood swings, restlessness or difficulty sleeping. If you feel depressed or have other changes to your mood, it is important to tell your doctor straight away.

Risk of infection

This treatment can reduce the number of white blood cells in your blood. These cells fight infection. If the number of white blood cells is low, you are more likely to get an infection. A low white blood cell count is called neutropenia.

If you have an infection, it is important to treat it as soon as possible. Contact the hospital straight away on the 24-hour contact number you have if:

  • your temperature goes over 37.5°C (99.5°F)
  • you suddenly feel unwell, even with a normal temperature
  • you have symptoms of an infection.

Symptoms of an infection include:

  • feeling shaky
  • a sore throat
  • a cough
  • diarrhoea
  • needing to pass urine a lot.

It is important to follow any specific advice your cancer treatment team gives you.

The number of white blood cells will usually return to normal before your next treatment. You will have a blood test before having more treatment. If your white blood cell count is low, your doctor may delay your treatment for a short time.

Feeling sick

Your doctor can give you anti-sickness drugs to help prevent or control sickness. If you still feel sick, tell your doctor. They can prescribe other anti-sickness drugs that may work better for you.

Loss of appetite

This treatment can affect your appetite. Do not worry if you do not eat much for a day or two. But if your appetite does not come back after a few days, tell your nurse or dietitian. They will give you advice. They may give you food or drink supplements.

Changes to your taste

You may find that food tastes different. If you don’t have a sore mouth or ulcers, try using herbs and spices or strong-flavoured sauces to give your food more flavour. Taste changes usually get better after treatment finishes. Your nurse or dietician can give you more advice.

Redness at the injection site

This can be reduced by having the injections in different places. Your nurse or doctor can give you advice on how to reduce any discomfort. If the area becomes red, tender and warm, tell them straight away. These can be signs of infection.


This treatment may cause headaches. If this happens, tell your doctor or nurse. They can give you painkillers.


If you have diarrhoea, contact the hospital for advice. Try to drink at least 2 litres (3½ pints) of fluids every day. It can help to avoid alcohol, caffeine, milk products, high-fat foods and high-fibre foods.

Increased sweating

Interferon may cause some people to sweat more. Wearing natural fabrics such as cotton may help.

Hair thinning

Your hair may start to thin. Rarely, interferon can cause complete hair loss. Effects on your hair are temporary. Hair usually begins to grow back and thicken a few weeks after treatment ends.

Sore mouth and ulcers

Your mouth may become sore or dry and you may get small ulcers. This can make you more likely to get an infection in your mouth. Gently clean your teeth or dentures morning and night and after meals. Use a soft-bristled or children’s toothbrush. Your nurse might advise you to use mouthwashes. It is important to follow any advice you are given and to drink plenty of fluids.

Tell your nurse or doctor if you have any problems with your mouth. They can prescribe medicines to prevent or treat mouth infections and reduce soreness.

Changes to your skin

Your skin may become dry or itchy. Tell your doctor or nurse about any skin changes. They can give you advice and may give you creams or medicines to help.

If you have psoriasis, it may get worse during treatment. Your doctor can tell you more about this.

Effects on the heart

Interferon may cause changes to your heartbeat or affect your blood pressure. If you notice any changes to your heartbeat, or have any pain or feel a tightness in your chest, tell your doctor straight away.

Less common side effects of interferon

Allergic reaction

Rarely, some people have an allergic reaction to interferon. Contact the hospital straight away if you develop:

  • red, warm and itchy bumps on the skin (like nettle rash)
  • swelling of the lips, tongue or throat
  • breathlessness, wheezing, a cough or sudden difficulty with breathing
  • a tight chest or chest pain.

Raised blood sugar levels

Interferon may raise your blood sugar levels. Symptoms of this include feeling thirsty, needing to pass urine more often and feeling tired. Tell your doctor or nurse if you have these symptoms.

If you have diabetes, your blood sugar levels may be higher than usual. Your doctor will talk to you about how to manage this.

Effects on the eyes

Your eyes may become sore, red or itchy (conjunctivitis). If this happens, tell your doctor. They can give you eye drops to help.

Interferon can sometimes cause blurred vision. Changes are usually mild, but rarely they can be more severe. If you notice any changes to your vision, contact your doctor so that they can check your eyes.

Effects on the lungs

Rarely, interferon can affect the lungs. If you have a cough or feel breathless, contact your doctor for advice. They may arrange for you to have a chest x-ray to check your lungs. If lung changes happen, they usually get better with treatment and after you stop having interferon.

Effects on the kidneys or liver

In some people, interferon can affect their kidneys or liver. This is usually mild and goes back to normal after treatment. You will have regular blood tests to check your kidneys and liver.

Other information about interferon

Other medicines

Some medicines could be harmful while you are having interferon. This includes medicines you can buy in a shop or chemist. Tell your doctor about any medicines you are taking, including herbal drugs, complementary therapies and ones you can buy for yourself.

Driving and using machines

If you have blurred vision, feel drowsy, tired, or have difficulty concentrating, do not drive or use machines.


Interferon may affect whether you can get pregnant or father a child. If you are worried about this, it is important to talk with your doctor before starting treatment.


Your doctor will advise you not to get pregnant or father a child while having interferon. It is important to use effective contraception while taking this drug. You can discuss this with your doctor or nurse.


Women are advised not not to breastfeed during treatment with interferon. This is because the drug could be passed to the baby through breast milk.

Medical or dental treatment

If you need medical treatment for any reason other than cancer, always tell the doctors and nurses that you are taking interferon. Tell them the name of your cancer doctor so they can ask for advice.

Always tell your dentist you are taking interferon.