Causes and risk factors

Pre-cancerous conditions

Having a pre-cancerous condition doesn’t mean that you have cancer, or that you will definitely develop cancer. But pre-cancerous conditions are diseases or syndromes that might develop into a cancer, so it’s important to monitor your health.

  • Breast calcifications

    Breast calcifications are small spots (deposits) of calcium in the breast – they are usually harmless.

  • Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS)

    Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is not a cancer, but can increase the risk of developing cancer.

  • Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN)

    Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) is a term that describes abnormal changes of the cells that line the cervix.

  • MGUS

    MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance) is a non-cancerous condition where the body makes an abnormal protein, called a paraprotein.

  • Vaginal intra-epithelial neoplasia (VAIN)

    Vaginal intra-epithelial neoplasia, or VAIN, is a term that describes abnormal changes of the cells that line the vagina.

  • Barrett's oesophagus

    Barrett's oesophagus is a condition that can sometimes develop into cancer of the lower oesophagus.

  • Vulval intra-epithelial neoplasia (VIN)

    Vulval intra-epithelial neoplasia (VIN) is a skin condition affecting the vulva. It may develop into cancer after many years.

  • Vulval lichen sclerosus and lichen planus

    Vulval lichen sclerosus and lichen planus are skin conditions that commonly affect the vulva. They occasionally develop into vulval cancer.

  • Bowen's disease

    Bowen’s disease is a skin condition. It is slow-growing, and there are many effective treatments.