In both tests, a doctor passes a thin, flexible tube with a tiny camera and light on the end into the opening of the urethra. This is either at the tip of the penis or just in front of the vagina.
During a cystoscopy, the doctor passes the tube into the bladder. During a ureteroscopy, they pass the tube into the bladder and then move it further into the ureter or renal pelvis.
The doctor may take samples of cells from any areas that look abnormal (biopsy). They send the samples to a laboratory to be examined for signs of cancer. The doctor may also take a sample of pee (urine) from the renal pelvis to be tested for cancer cells.
ReferencesBelow is a sample of the sources used in our upper urinary tract urothelial cancer (UTUC) information. If you would like more information about the sources we use, please contact us at email@example.com
European Association of Urology. Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma guidelines. EAU Guidelines. Edn. presented at the EAU Annual Congress Copenhagen 2018. ISBN 978-94-92671-01-1. Available from www.uroweb.org/wp-content/uploads/Upper-Urinary-Tract-Urothelial-Carcinoma-large-text-V3.pdf (accessed April 2021).
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Atezolizumab for untreated PD-L1-positive locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer when cisplatin is unsuitable. Technology appraisal guidance (TA492). Published 06 December 2017. Last updated 12 July 2018. Available from www.nice.org.uk/guidance/TA492 (accessed April 2021)
Birtle A, et al. Adjuvant chemotherapy in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (the POUT trial): a phase 3, open-label, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 2020; 395, 10232, 1268-1277. Available from www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30415-3/fulltext (accessed June 2021).
This information has been written, revised and edited by Macmillan Cancer Support’s Cancer Information Development team. It has been reviewed by expert medical and health professionals and people living with cancer. It has been approved by Senior Medical Editor, Dr Lisa Pickering, Consultant Medical Oncologist.
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