Late effects of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) treatment

Sometimes side effects from acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) treatment may continue or develop months or years after treatment. These are called late effects.

About late effects

Unfortunately, treatment for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) can sometimes cause side effects that are permanent or happen months or years later.

These will not happen to everyone. Your doctor or specialist nurse can explain how likely they are to affect you. They may give you advice about ways to prevent or manage long-term effects. This may include:

  • telling them about certain symptoms
  • having regular tests or check-ups with your GP or at a hospital clinic
  • having treatments or medicines
  • making lifestyle changes.

Changes to heart health

Some leukaemia treatments can increase your risk of heart problems later in life. After these treatments, your doctor may arrange tests to check your heart every few years. They may also advise you to have regular blood pressure checks and blood tests to check your cholesterol levels. Your GP can arrange this for you.

We have more information about cancer treatment and your heart.

Second cancers

People who have had intensive chemotherapy or a stem cell transplant have a slightly higher risk of developing a different cancer years later. It is important to go for any cancer screening tests when you are invited. Screening tests:

  • look for early changes that can be treated to prevent cancer
  • find cancer at an early stage when it is easier to treat.

We have more information about breast, bowel and cervical screening. Ask your doctor or specialist nurse what screening you should have and when you should have this.


If you are thinking about trying to get pregnant, talk to your doctor. They can give you advice based on the leukaemia treatment you had and your age. They can help you arrange tests to check if your fertility has been affected by treatment. They can arrange for you to see a fertility specialist for more advice if needed.

We have more information about fertility after treatment for men, and for women.

Early menopause

Treatment for leukaemia can cause some women to have an earlier menopause. Your doctor can tell you if this is likely.

You may have blood tests to check for signs of the menopause. Some women have hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) to reduce menopausal symptoms. Your doctor will explain any possible benefits and risks of HRT. We have more information about menopause after cancer treatment.

About our information

  • References

    Below is a sample of the sources used in our acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML) information. If you would like more information about the sources we use, please contact us at

    British Committee for Standards in Haematology. Milligan DW et al. Guidelines on the management of acute myeloid leukaemia in adults. British Journal of Haematology. 2006. 135: 450–474. 

    Fey MF and Buske C. Acute myeloblastic leukaemia in adult patients: ESMO clinical practice guidelines. Annals of Oncology. 2013. 24 (Supplement 6): vi138-vi143.

    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Blood and bone marrow cancer. (accessed July 2018).

  • Reviewers

    This information has been written, revised and edited by Macmillan Cancer Support’s Cancer Information Development team. It has been reviewed by expert medical and health professionals and people living with cancer. It has been approved by Senior Medical Editor, Dr Anne Parker, Consultant Haematologist.

    Our cancer information has been awarded the PIF TICK. Created by the Patient Information Forum, this quality mark shows we meet PIF’s 10 criteria for trustworthy health information.