What dacarbazine looks like
Back to top
Dacarbazine is a pale yellow liquid.
Dacarbazine may be given in one of the following ways:
by slow injection into a vein (intravenously) through a fine tube inserted into a vein, usually in the back of your hand (cannula)
through a fine, plastic tube inserted under the skin and into a vein near your collarbone (central line)
into a fine tube inserted into a vein in the crook of your arm (PICC line)
by drip (infusion) through the cannula or line.
The infusion can take 15–30 minutes or two hours.
Chemotherapy is usually given as a course of several sessions (or cycles) of treatment over a few months. The length of your treatment and the number of cycles you have will depend on the type of cancer you're being treated for. Dacarbazine may be given alongside other chemotherapy drugs as part of a combination treatment (regimen). Your nurse or doctor will discuss your treatment plan with you.
Before you begin your treatment, your doctor will arrange for you to have blood tests. You'll usually be given anti-sickness drugs before and/or during your treatment.
Each person’s reaction to chemotherapy is different. Some people have very few side effects while others may experience more. The side effects described here won't affect everyone who is given dacarbazine and may be different if you're having more than one type of chemotherapy drug.
We have outlined the most common side effects but haven't included those that are rare and unlikely to affect you. If you notice any effects that are not listed here, discuss them with your doctor, chemotherapy nurse or pharmacist.
Feeling sick (nausea) and being sick (vomiting)
This may begin soon after the treatment is given and can last for a few days. Your doctor can prescribe very effective anti-sickness (anti-emetic) drugs to prevent or greatly reduce nausea and vomiting. If the sickness isn't controlled, or if it continues, tell your doctor; they can prescribe other anti-sickness drugs that may be more effective.
Some anti-sickness drugs can cause constipation. Let your doctor or nurse know if this is a problem.
Risk of infection
Dacarbazine can reduce the number of white blood cells, which help fight infection. White blood cells are produced by the bone marrow. If the number of your white blood cells is low you'll be more prone to infections. A low white blood cell count is called neutropenia.
Neutropenia begins seven days after treatment, and your resistance to infection is usually at its lowest 21–28 days after chemotherapy. The number of your white blood cells will then increase steadily and usually return to normal before your next cycle of chemotherapy is due.
Contact your doctor or the hospital straight away if:
your temperature goes above 38ºC (100.54F)
you suddenly feel unwell even with a normal temperature
You'll have a blood test before having more chemotherapy to check the number of white blood cells. Occasionally, your treatment may need to be delayed if the number of your blood cells (blood count) is still low.
Bruising and bleeding
Dacarbazine can reduce the production of platelets, which help the blood to clot. Tell your doctor if you have any unexplained bruising or bleeding, such as nosebleeds, bleeding gums, blood spots or rashes on the skin. You may need to have a platelet transfusion if your platelet count is low.
Dacarbazine can reduce the number of red blood cells, which carry oxygen around the body. A low red blood cell count is called anaemia. This may make you feel tired and breathless. Tell your doctor or nurse if you have these symptoms. You may need to have a blood transfusion if the number of red blood cells becomes too low.
Loss of appetite
Some people lose their appetite while they’re having chemotherapy. This can be mild and may only last a few days. If it doesn’t improve you can ask to see a dietitian or specialist nurse at your hospital. They can give you advice on improving your appetite and keeping to a healthy weight.
Pain at injection site
Dacarbazine can cause pain at the place where the injection is given or along the vein. If you feel pain, tell your nurse or doctor straight away so that they can check the site. They may give the drug more slowly or flush it through with more fluid to reduce pain.
Less common side effects
Back to top
Dacarbazine can cause diarrhoea. This can usually be easily controlled with medicine, but tell your doctor if it's severe or continues. It's important to drink plenty of fluids if you have diarrhoea.
This is rare, but your hair may thin or occasionally fall out completely. If this happens, it usually begins about 3–4 weeks after starting treatment, although it may occur earlier. This is temporary and your hair will start to grow back once the treatment has finished. Your hair may grow back straighter, curlier, finer, or a slightly different colour than it was before. Your nurse can give you advice about coping with hair loss.
Treatment with dacarbazine may cause changes in the way your liver works, although it will return to normal when the treatment finishes. You're very unlikely to notice any problems, but your doctor will take regular blood samples to check your liver is working properly.
During treatment with dacarbazine and for several months afterwards, you'll be more sensitive to the sun and your skin may burn more easily than normal. You can still go out in the sun but should wear a suncream with a high sun protection factor (SPF), and cover up with clothing and a hat.
Some people receiving dacarbazine have an allergic reaction to the drug either on the first dose or with further doses. Signs of an allergic reaction include skin rashes and itching, a high temperature (fever), shivering, reddening of the face, dizziness, a headache, breathlessness, anxiety and a feeling that you want to pass urine. You'll be monitored for any signs of an allergic reaction while your treatment is being given. Tell your doctor or nurse know about any side effects you have.
This can occur up to a week after you have had dacarbazine and may last for a week or more. You may have headaches, aching joints or muscles, a high temperature, weakness and chills. If this does happen, it's important you drink plenty of fluids and get some rest.
Your mouth may become sore or dry, or you may notice small ulcers during this treatment. Drinking plenty of fluids, and cleaning your teeth regularly and gently with a soft toothbrush, can help reduce the risk of this happening. Some people may find sucking on ice soothing. Tell your nurse or doctor if you have any of these problems, as they can prescribe mouthwashes and medicine to prevent or clear mouth infections.
Occasionally during treatment you may get a strange, metallic or bitter taste in your mouth. Some people find sucking on a strongly flavoured sweet or mint helps to disguise this. You may also notice that food tastes different, but your normal taste will usually come back after treatment is over.
You may have a sudden feeling of warmth and some reddening in your face. This can happen for a short period of time while the drug is being given.
It’s important to let your doctor know straight away if you feel unwell or have any severe side effects, even if they’re not mentioned above.
Back to top
Risk of developing a blood clot
Cancer can increase the risk of developing a blood clot (thrombosis), and chemotherapy may increase this risk further.
A blood clot may cause symptoms such as pain, redness and swelling in a leg, or breathlessness and chest pain. Blood clots can be very serious, so it’s important to tell your doctor straight away if you notice any of these symptoms. Most clots can be treated with drugs that thin the blood. The doctor or nurse can give you more information.
Some medicines, including those you can buy in a shop or chemist, can be harmful to take when you're having chemotherapy. Tell your doctor about any medicines you're taking, including over-the-counter drugs, complementary therapies and herbal drugs.
Your ability to become pregnant or father a child may be affected by having this treatment. It's important to discuss fertility with your doctor before starting treatment.
It's not advisable to become pregnant or father a child while taking dacarbazine as it may harm the developing baby. It’s important to use effective contraception while taking this drug and for at least a few months afterwards. You can discuss this with your doctor or nurse.
It’s not known whether chemotherapy drugs can be present in semen or vaginal fluids. To protect your partner, it’s safest to either avoid sex or use a barrier form of contraception for about 48 hours after chemotherapy.
There's a potential risk that chemotherapy drugs may be present in breast milk. Women are advised not to breastfeed during chemotherapy and for a few months afterwards.
If you’re admitted to hospital for a reason not related to the cancer, it’s important to tell the doctors and nurses looking after you that you're having chemotherapy treatment. You should tell them the name of your cancer specialist so that they can ask for advice.
It’s a good idea to know who you should contact if you have any problems or troublesome side effects when you’re at home. Your chemotherapy nurse or doctor will give you details of who to contact for advice. This should include ‘out-of hours’ contact details if you need to call someone at evenings, overnight or at the weekend.
This section is based on our Dacarbazine fact sheet which has been compiled using information from a number of reliable sources, including:
Sweetman, et al. Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. 37th edition. 2011. Pharmaceutical Press.
electronic Medicines Compendium. (accessed October 2011).
British National Formulary. 62nd edition. 2011. British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.
Perry MC. The Chemotherapy Source Book. 4th edition. 2007. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.