PCV is a chemotherapy treatment used to treat brain tumours.
This information is best when read with our general information about chemotherapy
and brain tumours
The name PCV comes from the initials of the chemotherapy drugs used in the treatment. The drugs are:
You usually have PCV in the chemotherapy day unit. A chemotherapy nurse will give it to you. During treatment, you usually see a cancer doctor, a chemotherapy nurse or a specialist nurse. This is who we mean when we mention doctor or nurse in this information.
Before or on the day of treatment, a nurse or person trained to take blood (phlebotomist) will take a blood sample from you. This is to check that it is okay for you to have chemotherapy.
You will also see a doctor or nurse before you have chemotherapy. They will ask you about how you have been. If your blood results are alright on the day of your treatment, the pharmacist will prepare your chemotherapy. Your nurse will tell you when your treatment is likely to be ready.
Your nurse will give you anti-sickness (anti-emetic) drugs as an injection into a vein or as tablets. They give you the drug and chemotherapy through a short thin tube (cannula) that the nurse puts into a vein in your arm or hand.
Your nurse will give you vincristine as a drip (infusion) through your cannula. This takes about ten minutes. The nurse will stay with you during this. You will then be given a dose of lomustine capsules to take.
On the same day or the following day, you start taking a 10-day course of procarbazine capsules.
When the chemotherapy is being given
Some people might have side effects while they are having PCV:
The drug leaks outside the vein
If this happens when you’re having vincristine, it can damage the tissue around the vein. This is called extravasation. Tell the nurse straight away if you have any stinging, pain, redness or swelling around the vein. Extravasation is not common but if it happens it’s important that it’s dealt with quickly.
If you get any of these symptoms after you get home, contact the doctor or nurse straight away on the number they gave you.
Procarbazine may cause flu-like symptoms, such as:
feeling hot, cold and/or shivery
having a headache
You may have these symptoms several hours after procarbazine is given. Your nurse may advise you to take paracetamol. Drinking plenty of fluids will also help. If the symptoms are severe or don’t improve after 24 hours, contact the hospital.
Taking your chemotherapy tablets or capsules
Before you leave hospital the nurse or pharmacist gives you your chemotherapy capsules to take when you are at home. They will also give you anti-sickness (anti-emetic) tablets to take.
Always take all your capsules and tablets exactly as explained. This is important to make sure they work as well as possible for you.
The lomustine and procarbazine capsules should be swallowed whole with a glass of water. They should not be chewed or opened. Wash your hands before and after handling the capsules.
If you are sick just after taking the capsules, contact the hospital. You may need to take another dose. If you forget to take a capsule, do not take a double dose. Keep to your regular schedule and let your doctor or nurse know. If you have any concerns, contact the pharmacy or nurse on the numbers given.
Other things to remember about your medicines:
Keep them in the original package at room temperature away from heat and direct sunlight.
Keep them safe and out of the reach of children.
Take the medicines as instructed on the label
Return any remaining tablets/capsules to the pharmacist if your treatment is stopped.
Your course of PCV
You have chemotherapy as a course of several sessions (or cycles) of treatment over a few months. Each cycle of PCV takes 42 days (six weeks).
On the first day, you have vincristine and lomustine. You start the 10-day course of procarbazine capsules on the same or the following day. When this finishes, you have no more treatment for the remaining 32 days.
At the end of the 42 days you start your second cycle of PCV. This is exactly the same as the first cycle. Usually you will have up to six cycles. Your doctor or nurse will tell you the number of cycles you are likely to have.
Possible side effects of PCV
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We explain the most common side effects of PCV here. But we don’t include all the rare ones that are unlikely to affect you.
You may get some of the side effects we mention but you are very unlikely to get all of them. Always tell your doctor or nurse about the side effects you have. Your doctor can prescribe drugs to help control some of these.
It is very important to take the drugs exactly as your nurse or pharmacist has explained. This means they will be more likely to work better for you.
Your nurse will give you advice about managing your side effects. After your treatment is over, the side effects will start to improve.
Serious and life-threatening side effects
Sometimes cancer drugs can result in very serious side effects, which rarely may be life-threatening. Your cancer doctor and nurse can explain the risk of these side effects to you.
Contact the hospital
Your nurse will give you a telephone number or numbers to call the hospital if you feel unwell or need advice any time day or night. Save these numbers in your mobile phone or keep them somewhere safe.
More information about this drug
We’re not able to list every side effect for this treatment here, particularly the rarer ones. For more detailed information, you can visit the electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC).
Risk of infection
Chemotherapy can reduce the number of white blood cells in your blood. This will make you more likely to get an infection. When the number of white blood cells is low, it’s called neutropenia.
Contact the hospital straight away on the contact number you’ve been given if:
your temperature goes over 37.5°C (99.5°F) or over 38°C (100.4°F), depending on the advice given by your chemotherapy team
you suddenly feel unwell, even with a normal temperature
you have symptoms of an infection – this can include feeling shaky, a sore throat, a cough, diarrhoea or needing to pass urine a lot.
The number of white cells usually increases steadily and returns to normal before your next treatment. You will have a blood test before having more chemotherapy. If your blood cells are still low, your doctor may delay your treatment for a short time.
Bruising and bleeding
PCV can reduce the number of platelets in your blood. Platelets are cells that help the blood to clot. Tell your doctor if you have any bruising or bleeding you can’t explain. This includes nosebleeds, bleeding gums, blood spots or rashes on the skin. Some people may need a drip to give them extra platelets.
Anaemia (low number of red blood cells)
PCV can reduce the number of red blood cells in your blood. These cells carry oxygen around the body. If they are low, you may be tired and breathless. Tell your doctor or nurse if you feel like this. If you are very anaemic, you may need a drip to give you extra red cells (blood transfusion).
This may happen in the first few days after chemotherapy. Your doctor will prescribe anti-sickness (anti-emetic) drugs to help prevent or control sickness. They may also give you a steroid drug to help. Take the drugs exactly as your nurse or pharmacist explains to you. It’s easier to prevent sickness than to treat it after it has started.
If you still feel sick, or vomit twice or more in 24 hours, contact the hospital on the numbers they gave you as soon as possible. They will give you advice and may change the anti-sickness drug to one that works better for you. Some people may need to go to hospital for a short time so the doctors and nurses can control their sickness.
Feeling very tired is a common side effect. It’s often worse towards the end of treatment and for some weeks after it’s finished. Try to pace yourself and get as much rest as you need. It helps to balance this with some gentle exercise, such as short walks. If you feel sleepy, don’t drive or operate machinery.
Problems passing urine
If you feel that you are passing more or less urine than usual, or have pain when passing urine, contact the hospital straight away.
Your hair may thin, but you’re unlikely to lose all the hair from your head. The thinning usually starts after your first or second cycle of chemotherapy. It is almost always temporary and your hair will grow back after chemotherapy ends. Your nurse can give you advice about coping with hair loss.
Numb or tingling hands or feet
These symptoms are caused by the effect of vincristine on nerves. It’s called peripheral neuropathy. You may also find it hard to fasten buttons or do other fiddly tasks.
Tell your doctor if you have these symptoms. They sometimes need to lower the dose of the drug. The symptoms usually improve slowly after treatment finishes, but in some people they may never go away. Talk to your doctor if you are worried about this.
Vincristine may make you constipated and cause tummy pain. Drinking at least two litres (three and a half pints) of fluids every day will help. Try to eat more foods that contain fibre (such as fruit, vegetables and wholemeal bread) and do some regular, gentle exercise.
If you haven’t had a bowel motion for two days, contact the hospital for advice. Your doctor can prescribe laxatives to help you. Always contact the hospital straight away if you are constipated and have tummy pain or are being sick.
Vincristine may cause pain in your jaw. Tell your nurse or doctor if you notice this.
Changes in the way the kidneys and liver work
PCV can affect how your kidneys and liver work. This is usually mild and goes back to normal after treatment. You will have blood tests before chemotherapy to check how well your kidneys and liver are working.
Your mouth may become sore and you may get ulcers. This can make you more likely to get an infection in your mouth. Gently clean your teeth and/or dentures morning and night and after meals. Use a soft-bristled or children’s toothbrush. Your nurse might ask you to rinse your mouth regularly or use mouthwashes. It’s important to follow any advice you are given and to drink plenty of fluids.
Tell your nurse or doctor if you have any problems with your mouth. They can prescribe medicines to prevent or treat mouth infections and reduce any soreness.
Chemotherapy may affect your skin. Your doctor or nurse can tell you what to expect. If your skin feels dry, try using an unperfumed moisturising cream every day. Procarbazine can cause a rash. Let your doctor know straightaway if this happens.
Always tell your doctor or nurse about any skin changes. They can give you advice and may prescribe creams or medicines to help. Any changes to your skin are usually temporary and improve when treatment finishes.
Less common side effects of PCV
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These side effects affect fewer than 1 in 10 people (under 10%).
Rarely, procarbazine can cause an allergic reaction. Signs of a reaction can include:
wheezing or feeling short of breath
swelling of your face or lips
Tell your nurse straight away if you have any of these symptoms. If you develop any of these symptoms after you get home, contact the hospital on the numbers you’ve been given immediately or go to the nearest accident and emergency department.
Effects on the nervous system
Vincristine can affect the nervous system. You may feel dizzy or unsteady. Tell your doctor or nurse straight away if you notice any of these symptoms. They may make some changes to your treatment if they become a problem for you. It’s important not to drive or operate machinery if you notice these effects. Rarely, this treatment can cause seizures (fits).
Effects on the lungs
Rarely, PCV can cause changes to the lungs. Always tell your doctor if you develop wheezing, a cough, a fever or feel breathless. You should also let them know if any existing breathing problems get worse. If necessary, they can arrange for you to have tests to check your lungs.
PCV may rarely affect your vision. Always tell your doctor or nurse if you have eye pain or notice any change in your vision.
Your doctor can prescribe drugs to control diarrhoea. Let them know if it is severe or if it doesn’t get better. Make sure you drink at least two litres (three and a half pints) of fluids every day if you have diarrhoea.
It’s important to let your doctor know straight away if you feel unwell or have any severe side effects, even if they’re not mentioned here.
Other information about PCV
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Interaction with alcohol and some foods
It’s best to avoid alcohol, alcohol-free beers and wines and certain foods when you’re taking procarbazine. These can cause a reaction that can make you feel sick and cause headaches, sweating, drowsiness and breathing problems. Avoid foods such as mature cheeses, salami, and yeast or beef extracts (Oxo ®, Bovril ® and Marmite ®) and over-ripe fruit. Your nurse, doctor or pharmacist will give you more advice on foods to avoid.
Blood clot risk
Cancer increases the chance of a blood clot (thrombosis) and chemotherapy can add to this. A clot can cause symptoms such as pain, redness and swelling in a leg, breathlessness and chest pain. Contact your doctor straight away if you have any of these symptoms. A blood clot is serious but your doctor can treat it with drugs that thin the blood. Your doctor or nurse can give you more information.
Some medicines, including ones you can buy in a shop or chemist, can interact with or be harmful when you are having chemotherapy. Tell your doctor about any medicines you are taking, including over-the-counter drugs, complementary therapies and herbal drugs.
PCV may affect your fertility (being able to get pregnant or father a child). If you are worried about this, you can talk to your doctor or nurse before treatment starts.
Your doctor will advise you not to become pregnant or to father a child during treatment. This is because the drugs may harm a developing baby. It’s important to use effective contraception during and for a few months after chemotherapy. You can talk to your doctor or nurse about this.
If you have sex during chemotherapy, you need to use a condom. This is to protect your partner in case there is any chemotherapy in your semen or vaginal fluid.
Changes to your periods
Chemotherapy can sometimes stop the ovaries working. You might not get a period every month and they may eventually stop. In some women this is temporary, but for others it is permanent and they start the menopause.
Women are advised not to breastfeed during treatment and for a few months after. This is in case there is chemotherapy in their breast milk.
Medical and dental treatment
If you need to go into hospital for any reason other than cancer, always tell the doctors and nurses that you are having chemotherapy. Explain you are taking chemotherapy tablets that no one should stop or restart. Give them the contact details for your cancer doctor.
Talk to your cancer doctor or nurse if you think you need dental treatment. Always tell your dentist you are having chemotherapy.
This page has been compiled using information from a number of reliable sources, including the electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC; medicines.org.uk). If you’d like further information on the sources we use, please feel free to contact us.
This information was reviewed by a medical professional.
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