If you have an early oesophageal cancer that hasn’t spread (stage 1), you may be offered surgery to remove the cancer, or a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This is called chemoradiotherapy. In some circumstances, you may be offered endoscopic mucosal resection.
If the cancer has begun to spread (stage 2 or 3), you may be offered chemotherapy, or sometimes chemoradiotherapy, followed by an operation. Chemotherapy is sometimes also given again after surgery. If you aren’t fit enough for chemotherapy, you may be offered surgery or radiotherapy.
If the tumour is difficult to remove with an operation, you may first be offered chemoradiotherapy. This can sometimes make surgery possible.