Scalp cooling is a method of reducing hair loss (alopecia) caused by chemotherapy. Some types of chemotherapy drugs cause hair loss but the hair grows back once the treatment has ended.
We hope this information answers your questions. If you have any further questions, you can ask your doctor or nurse at the hospital where you are having your treatment.
Scalp cooling is a method of reducing hair loss from the head during treatment with some chemotherapy drugs. Chemotherapy is the use of anti-cancer (cytotoxic) drugs to destroy cancer cells.
How scalp cooling works
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Every hair on the body grows out of a hair follicle. Small blood vessels in the scalp supply the cells of these follicles with food and oxygen, and carry away waste products. Any chemotherapy drugs in the bloodstream will also be carried to the hair follicles. When blood vessels in the scalp are cooled they become smaller, and so less blood flows through them. Cooling the scalp during chemotherapy means that less of the chemotherapy drug reaches the hair follicles, which means the hair is less likely to fall out.
There are two widely available methods of scalp cooling. One method uses a hat known as a 'cold cap', which is filled with a gel that can be chilled. The hat must be fitted snugly around the head to work properly. The other method of uses a small, refrigerated cooling system to pump a liquid coolant through a cap that is attached to the cooling system.
Who can have scalp cooling?
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Scalp cooling is not suitable for everyone.
It isn't suitable:
with haematological cancers, such as myeloma, leukaemia and lymphoma, as there is a high risk of cancer cells surviving in the blood vessels of the scalp and causing the cancer to come back after treatment
for some people who need very high doses of chemotherapy, as scalp cooling is less likely to work with very high doses of the drugs
if you’re having continuous chemotherapy through a pump for several days, as this makes it impractical to have scalp cooling
for some patients whose liver isn't working as well as it should - this may lead to the chemotherapy drugs circulating in the body for longer than usual, and it may not be possible to keep the scalp cold for long enough
for people who have severe migraines.
Concerns about scalp cooling
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Some doctors worry about using scalp cooling with treatment that aims to cure the cancer. They are concerned that cancer cells that may have spread to the scalp may be more likely to survive chemotherapy if scalp cooling is used. However, secondary cancers in the scalp are very uncommon. Clinical trials have shown that the risk of these developing as a result of scalp cooling is very small, except in haematological cancers. Some people may prefer not to have scalp cooling because of this, but others are happy to try it. If you’re interested, talk it through with your doctor.
Some drugs that scalp cooling may be used with
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Scalp cooling is most likely to be effective with:
For scalp cooling to work, your scalp temperature needs to be kept low for the whole time the drugs are circulating in your blood.
This means that your scalp needs to be cold for about 30-40 minutes before your chemotherapy drugs are given, throughout the time chemotherapy is given and for some time afterwards.
If you are having your chemotherapy as an outpatient, you may need to spend up to three hours longer at the hospital for each treatment.
Some people find that the ice pack and gel-filled hats feel heavy to wear. When using this type of hat you are usually free to walk about once your chemotherapy has been given. However, your hat will need to be changed every 20-40 minutes to keep your scalp cool, so you can’t go too far from the chemotherapy department.
Caps attached to the cooling machines generally feel lighter than the frozen caps. You will need to sit by the machine while the cap is in place, so you won’t be able to walk about freely with this method. However, the cap can be disconnected for short periods if necessary - for example, if you need to use the toilet. These caps don't need to be changed as the machine continuously cools the liquid circulating round your scalp.
You’ll probably feel chilly when having scalp cooling and may need to wear warm clothes. Hot drinks will help you feel warmer. You may get a headache during scalp cooling, especially in hot weather.
How effective is scalp cooling?
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Scalp cooling can be effective in preventing or reducing the loss of your hair. But you won't know how well it will work for you until you try it.
Despite scalp cooling, you may find that your hair thins slightly. Unfortunately, some people who have scalp cooling will still lose their hair. Some people, who lose their hair over a prolonged period while using scalp cooling, find this harder to cope with than the quicker and more predictable hair loss that occurs without scalp cooling.
If you lose your hair despite scalp cooling your nurse will usually recommend discontinuing it to protect your scalp from the effects of the cold temperatures.
Scalp cooling only protects the hair on your scalp. Body hair - including eyelashes, eyebrows, beards and moustaches, chest hair and pubic hair - may be lost.
Hair loss caused by chemotherapy is almost always temporary. Once the treatment is over, your hair will start to grow back. At first the hair is very fine, but you’ll probably have a full head of hair after 3-6 months. You may find that the texture or colour of your hair is different but this is often temporary. After about 12 months new hair growth may be similar to the colour and texture you had before chemotherapy.
If you’re interested in scalp cooling, discuss this with your doctor or nurse. They can advise whether it’s suitable for you.
This section has been compiled using information from a number of reliable sources, including:
Christodoulou C, et al. Scalp metastases and scalp cooling for chemotherapy induced alopecia prevention. Annals of Oncology. 2006. 17: 2: 359.
Floortje Mols, et al. Scalp cooling to prevent chemotherapy-induced hair loss: practical and clinical considerations. Support Care Cancer. 2009. 17: 181–189.
Lemieux J, et al. Incidence of scalp metastases in breast cancer: a retrospective cohort study in women who were offered scalp cooling. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009.
Van Den Hurk C et al Impact of alopecia and scalp cooling on the well-being of breast cancer patients Psycho-Oncology. 2010. 19:7: 701–709.
Van Den Hurk C et al Scalp cooling for hair preservation and associated characteristics in 1411 chemotherapy patients - Results of the Dutch Scalp Cooling Registry. Acta Oncologica, 2012; 51: 497–504.
Thanks to Ms Elaine Lennon and the people affected by cancer who reviewed this edition.
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