Clofarabine (Evoltra ®)
Clofarabine (Evoltra ®) is a chemotherapy drug used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) that has come back (relapsed). It may also be given for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) as part of a research trial.
This information should ideally be read with our general information about chemotherapy and your type of cancer.
How clofarabine is given
Back to top
You will be given clofarabine in the chemotherapy day unit or during a short stay in hospital.
A chemotherapy nurse will give it to you. During treatment, you will usually see a cancer doctor, a chemotherapy nurse or a specialist nurse. This is who we mean when we mention doctor or nurse in this information.
Before or on the day of treatment, a nurse or person trained to take blood (phlebotomist) will take a blood sample from you. This is to check that it is okay for you to have chemotherapy.
You will also see a doctor or nurse before you have chemotherapy. They will ask you about how you have been. If your blood results are alright on the day of your treatment, the pharmacist will prepare your chemotherapy. Your nurse will tell you when your treatment is likely to be ready.
Your nurse will give you anti-sickness drugs. Sometimes they will give you a steroid as an injection into a vein or as tablets. They will give you the drugs and chemotherapy through one of the following (depending if you have a line in or not):
a short thin tube (cannula) that the nurse puts into a vein in your arm or hand
a fine tube that goes under the skin of your chest and into a vein close by (central line)
a fine tube that is put into a vein in your arm and goes up into a vein in your chest (PICC line).
Your nurse will give clofarabine as a drip (infusion) into the cannula or line over two hours. They usually run the drip through a pump. This gives the treatment over a set time.
When the chemotherapy is being given
Some people might have side effects while they are having the chemotherapy:
Clofarabine may cause an allergic reaction while it’s being given. Your nurse will check you for this. If you have a reaction, they will treat it quickly. Signs of a reaction can include: a rash; feeling itchy, flushed or short of breath; swelling of your face or lips; feeling dizzy; having pain in your tummy, back or chest; or feeling unwell. Tell your nurse straight away if you have any of these symptoms.
Pain along the vein
If this happens tell your nurse straight away. They will check your drip site and slow the drip to ease the pain.
You may suddenly feel warm and your face may get red while the drug is being given. This should only last a few minutes.
Your course of chemotherapy
You will have chemotherapy as a course of several sessions (or cycles) of treatment over a few months. Clofarabine is usually given every day for five days, and repeated every 2–6 weeks. The nurse or doctor will discuss the treatment plan with you.
The nurse or pharmacist will give you anti-sickness drugs to take at home. Take these exactly as the nurse or pharmacist has explained.
Possible side effects of clofarabine
Back to top
We explain the most common side effects of clofarabine here. But we don’t include all the rare ones.
You may get some of the side effects we mention but you are very unlikely to get all of them. If you are having other chemotherapy drugs as well, you may have some side effects that we don’t list here. Always tell your doctor or nurse about the side effects you have.
Your doctor can prescribe drugs to help control some side effects. It is very important to take them exactly as your nurse or pharmacist has explained. This means they will be more likely to work better for you. Your nurse will give you advice about managing your side effects. After your treatment is over, the side effects will start to improve.
Contact the hospital
Your nurse will give you telephone numbers for the hospital. You can call them if you feel unwell or need advice any time of day or night. Save these numbers in your phone or keep them somewhere safe.
Risk of infection
Chemotherapy can reduce the number of white blood cells in your blood. This will make you more likely to get an infection. When the number of white blood cells is low, it’s called neutropenia.
Contact the hospital straight away on the contact number you’ve been given if:
your temperature goes over 37.5°C (99.5°F) or over 38°C (100.4°F), depending on the advice given by your chemotherapy team
you suddenly feel unwell, even with a normal temperature
you have symptoms of an infection – this can include feeling shaky, a sore throat, a cough, diarrhoea or needing to pass urine a lot.
The number of white blood cells usually increases steadily and returns to normal before your next treatment. You will have a blood test before having more chemotherapy. If your white blood cells are still low, your doctor may delay your treatment for a short time
Bruising and bleeding
Clofarabine can reduce the number of platelets in your blood. Platelets are cells that help the blood to clot. Tell your doctor if you have any bruising or bleeding you can’t explain. This includes nosebleeds, bleeding gums, blood spots or rashes on the skin. Some people may need a drip to give them extra platelets.
Anaemia (low number of red blood cells)
Clofarabine can reduce the number of red blood cells in your blood. These cells carry oxygen around the body. If the number of red blood cells is low, you may be tired and breathless. Tell your doctor or nurse if you feel like this. If you are very anaemic, you may need a drip to give you extra red blood cells (blood transfusion).
Feeling very tired is a common side effect. It’s often worse towards the end of treatment and for some weeks after it’s finished. Try to pace yourself and get as much rest as you need. It helps to balance this with some gentle exercise, such as short walks. If you feel sleepy, don’t drive or operate machinery.
This may happen in the first few days after chemotherapy. Your doctor will prescribe anti-sickness (anti-emetic) drugs to help prevent or control sickness. Take the drugs exactly as your nurse or pharmacist explains to you. It’s easier to prevent sickness than to treat it after it has started.
If you still feel sick or are vomiting, contact the hospital as soon as possible. They can give you advice and change the anti-sickness drug to one that works better for you.
Loss of appetite
You may lose your appetite during your treatment. Try to eat small meals regularly. Don’t worry if you don’t eat much for a day or two. If your appetite doesn’t improve after a few days, let your nurse or dietitian know. They can give you advice on getting more calories and protein in your diet. They may give you food supplements or meal replacement drinks to try. Your doctor can prescribe some of these and you can buy them from chemists.
Your doctor can prescribe drugs to control diarrhoea. Let them know if it is severe or if it doesn’t get better. Make sure you drink at least two litres (three and a half pints) of fluids every day if you have diarrhoea.
Your mouth may become sore and you may get ulcers. This can make you more likely to get an infection in your mouth. Gently clean your teeth and/or dentures morning and night and after meals. Use a soft-bristled or children’s toothbrush. Your nurse might ask you to rinse your mouth regularly or use mouthwashes. It’s important to follow any advice you are given and to drink plenty of fluids.
Tell your nurse or doctor if you have any problems with your mouth. They can prescribe medicines to prevent or treat mouth infections and reduce any soreness.
Chemotherapy may affect your skin. Your doctor or nurse can tell you what to expect. If your skin feels dry, try using an unperfumed moisturising cream every day. Clofarabine can cause a rash, which may be itchy.
Always tell your doctor or nurse about any skin changes. They can give you advice and may prescribe creams or medicines to help. Any changes to your skin are usually temporary and improve when treatment finishes.
Soreness and redness of palms of hands and soles of feet
This is called palmar-plantar or hand-foot syndrome. It gets better when treatment ends. Your doctor or nurse may prescribe creams to improve the symptoms. It can help to keep your hands and feet cool and to avoid tight-fitting socks, shoes and gloves.
Muscle and/or joint pain
You may get pain in your joints or muscles for a few days after chemotherapy. Tell your doctor if this happens so they can prescribe painkillers. Let them know if the pain does not get better. Try to get plenty of rest. Taking regular warm baths may help.
Numb or tingling hands or feet
These symptoms are caused by the effect of clofarabine on the nerves. It’s called peripheral neuropathy. You may also find it hard to fasten buttons or do other fiddly tasks.
Tell your doctor if you have these symptoms. They sometimes need to lower the dose of the drug. The symptoms usually improve slowly after treatment finishes but in some people they may never go away. Talk to your doctor if you are worried about this.
Your hair may thin but you’re unlikely to lose all the hair from your head. This usually starts after your first or second cycle of chemotherapy. It is almost always temporary and your hair will grow back after chemotherapy ends. Your nurse can give you advice about coping with hair loss.
Clofaribine may cause headaches. If this happens, let your doctor or nurse know. They can give you painkillers.
Effects on the nervous system
You may feel anxious or restless, have problems sleeping or experience mood changes. Tell your doctor or nurse straight away if you notice any of these symptoms. They may make some changes to your treatment if they become a problem for you. It’s important not to drive or operate machinery if you notice these effects.
Changes to your heartbeat
Clofaribine may cause changes to your heartbeat. This doesn’t usually cause serious problems and goes back to normal after treatment finishes. Let your doctor know if you notice your heartbeat is irregular or fast. If you get pain in your chest or feel dizzy, go to your doctor straight away.
Low blood pressure
Clofaribine may cause this. Tell your doctor or nurse if you have ever had any problems with your blood pressure. Your nurse will check it regularly during treatment. Let them know if you feel dizzy.
Changes in the way the kidneys and liver work
Chemotherapy can affect how your kidneys and liver work. This is usually mild and goes back to normal after treatment. You will have blood tests before chemotherapy to check how well your kidneys and liver are working.
Raised levels of uric acid in the blood
Cloraribine may cause the leukaemia cells to break down quickly. This releases uric acid (a waste product) into the blood. Too much uric acid can cause swelling and pain in the joints, which is called gout. Your doctor may give you tablets called allopurinol (zyloric ®) to help prevent this. Drinking at least two litres of fluid a day will also help. You will have regular blood tests to check the uric acid levels.
Less common side effects of clofarabine
Back to top
Changes to the lungs
This treatment can cause changes to the lungs. Always tell your doctor if you develop wheezing, a cough, fever or feel breathless. You should also let them know if any existing breathing problems get worse. If necessary, they can arrange for you to have tests to check your lungs.
Leaking from tiny blood vessels (capillary leak syndrome)
Rarely, clofaribine can cause this. It happens when fluid leaks from tiny blood vessels called capillaries. This can cause low blood pressure and make you unwell.
The first symptoms may be similar to a head cold with a runny nose. Contact your doctor immediately if you feel faint or dizzy, feel sick and have diarrhoea, feel breathless, or have aching or swollen legs.
Other information about clofarabine
Back to top
After treatment with clofaribine any blood and platelets you are given should first be treated with radiation. This lowers the risk of the donated blood cells reacting against your own. It won’t damage the blood or make you radioactive.
Your doctor will record in your medical notes that you should only be given irradiated blood products. They’ll also give you a card to carry in case you’re treated at another hospital. Keep this card with you at all times and remind your hospital team that you need irradiated blood or platelets.
Blood clot risk
Cancer increases the chance of a blood clot (thrombosis) and chemotherapy can add to this. A clot can cause symptoms such as pain, redness and swelling in a leg, breathlessness and chest pain. Contact your doctor straight away if you have any of these symptoms. A blood clot is serious but your doctor can treat it with drugs that thin the blood. Your doctor or nurse can give you more information.
Some medicines can interact with chemotherapy or be harmful when you are having chemotherapy. This includes medicines you can buy in a shop or chemist. Tell your doctor about any medicines you are taking, including over-the-counter drugs, complementary therapies and herbal drugs.
Clofarabine may affect your fertility (being able to get pregnant or father a child). If you are worried about this, you can talk to your doctor or nurse before treatment starts.
Your doctor will advise you not to become pregnant or to father a child during treatment. This is because the drugs may harm a developing baby. It’s important to use effective contraception during and for a few months after chemotherapy. You can talk to your doctor or nurse about this.
If you have sex within the first couple of days of having chemotherapy you need to use a condom. This is to protect your partner in case there is any chemotherapy in semen or vaginal fluid
Women are advised not to breastfeed during treatment and for a few months after. This is in case there is chemotherapy in their breast milk.
Medical and dental treatment
If you need to go into hospital for any reason other than cancer, always tell the doctors and nurses that you are having chemotherapy. Give them contact details for your cancer doctor.
Talk to your cancer doctor or nurse if you think you need dental treatment. Always tell your dentist you are having chemotherapy.
It is important to tell your doctor or nurse straight away if you feel ill or have severe side effects. This includes any we don’t mention here.
This section has been compiled using a number of reliable sources including:
electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC). medicines.org.uk (accessed July 2013).
Perry MC. The Chemotherapy Source Book. 5th edition. 2012 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
With thanks to Catherine Loughran, Lead Pharmacist Haematology, who reviewed this information.
Thanks to people like you
Thank you to all of the people affected by cancer who reviewed what you're reading and have helped our information to grow.
You could help us too when you join our Cancer Voices Network - find out more.