Immediate treatment effects

For some people the side effects of treatment may take a few weeks or months to improve, even after treatment has finished. Your doctor or nurse can talk to you about possible side effects and what to expect. They can give you advice on dealing with side effects and can prescribe medicines if needed.

Some immediate side effects can include:

  • tiredness
  • pain
  • peripheral neuropathy – a slight damage to the nerves, which usually gets better with time
  • changes to your eating habits
  • changes to how your body looks or functions
  • changes to your sex life
  • infertility.

Dealing with on-going treatment side effects

Many treatment side effects go away at the end of treatment. But some may take weeks or occasionally months to improve. If you are taking hormonal or maintenance therapy to reduce the risk of the cancer coming back you may have on-going side effects. Some treatments cause side effects that happen months or years after treatment. These are called late effects. Some people may also be adjusting to permanent body changes as a result of their treatment.

Always let your cancer doctor or nurse know about side effects or any symptoms you have. There’s usually something they can do to improve it. They can also give you advice on how to manage your side effects.

Immediate or on-going treatment effects


Most people are very tired when treatment finishes. You may find it hard to do simple day-to-day things or even to concentrate on anything for long. This can last from a few weeks or months or occasionally longer. This will gradually get better.

Plan your day and pace yourself so you have time to do the things you most want to do. Try to get a good balance between getting plenty of rest and being active. Taking some gentle exercise can help reduce tiredness and you can increase how much you do gradually.


Occasionally, cancer treatments can result in on-going (chronic) pain. Surgery or radiotherapy may limit movement or damage nerves in the treated area. This can cause pain or discomfort which may take weeks or sometimes months to improve. If you are in pain, let your cancer team know. They can prescribe drugs or a treatment to control the pain. They can also refer you to a pain specialist if needed. 

You may have been given exercises to keep a limb moving. It’s important to keep doing these, as they can prevent problems with pain in the future.

Peripheral neuropathy

Some chemotherapy drugs can damage the nerves in your feet, legs, hands and arms. This is called peripheral neuropathy. You may notice tingling or numbness, and have difficulty with tasks, such as doing up small buttons. Always let your doctor or nurse know if you have these symptoms. They can prescribe drugs to help and give you advice. Peripheral neuropathy gradually improves when treatment is over, but for a small number of people it can be permanent. 

Body changes

Coping with changes in how your body looks or functions as a result of treatment can be one of the hardest challenges you’ll face. Body changes can affect your self-esteem and your confidence. But in time, and with the right support, people often find they’re able to adjust. Your specialist nurse and other health professionals can support you and explain how to manage body changes.

If you have a partner, you may worry about their reaction. It helps to try to talk as openly as you can with each other. Your partner may be supportive and not have any problem with your changed appearance and be supportive. You and your partner may need some time to adjust.

Sometimes it can help to talk to a psychologist, a counsellor or a support group. You can ask your doctor or nurse to arrange this for you.

Changes to your sex life

Some cancer treatments can affect your sex life and how you feel about yourself.


Surgery or radiotherapy to the pelvic area or hormonal therapy may cause difficulties getting or keeping an erection. Your doctor can prescribe drugs to help with this, or refer you to a specialist clinic. There are other methods, such as vacuum pumps, that can be used if you can’t take these drugs or if they don’t work for you.


Early menopause or radiotherapy to the pelvis can cause vaginal dryness or loss of sex drive. You can buy creams or lubricants to help with the dryness and make having sex more comfortable. There are also creams or gels that your doctor can prescribe.


Some cancer treatments can cause infertility in both men and women. Losing your fertility can be very distressing, whatever your situation. Some people find it helpful to talk things over with a trained counsellor. Your doctor or nurse can arrange this.

Back to Managing treatment effects

Late effects

Late effects of cancer treatment may develop months or years after treatment ends.