What happens before surgery?

Before surgery, you’ll have a clinic appointment to check your general health and make sure you are fit enough to have the operation. You will have blood tests and may have a chest x-ray or a test to check your heart. Some hospitals follow an enhanced recovery programme to help you get home quickly and speed up your recovery.

If you smoke, try to cut down or give up before the operation. This will help reduce the risk of chest infection.

You may see the surgeon and an anaesthetist who will be looking after you. Ask any questions you have about the operation. It’s important that you understand what is involved before you agree to it. You need to sign a consent form agreeing to have the operation.

You will be asked not to eat or drink anything for a few hours before the operation. The nurse may give you a pair of special stockings to wear during and after the surgery. This is to help prevent blood clots in your legs.

Planning your operation

You operation will be carefully planned.

Your surgeon and anaesthetist are responsible for your well-being during and after your surgery. They must be sure that you are fit enough to undergo the operation. This means you may have to attend a hospital appointment before your operation to have some tests. This is known as a pre-assessment clinic.


Pre-assessment clinic

At a pre-assessment clinic you will usually be seen by a nurse and occasionally by an anaesthetist. The nurse will ask you about your medical history and if you have any allergies. They will also check your blood pressure, pulse, height and weight. It’s important that you bring any medicines you are currently taking including herbal medicines or supplements.

You may have some tests done, which usually include the following:

  • blood tests
  • a chest x-ray to check how well your lungs are working
  • an ECG (electrocardiogram), to check the rhythm and rate of the heart. It’s painless and usually only takes 5–10 minutes.

Some people may have other tests as well. Don’t worry if you have more tests than someone else. This might be because of the type of operation you’re having or because you have other health conditions.

If you aren’t able to have a general anaesthetic, it may still be possible for you to have surgery. Some operations can be done under local anaesthetic or regional anaesthetic (such as an epidural or spinal anaesthetic). With these techniques you’ll be awake during the operation but won’t feel any pain.

It’s important that you understand everything about the operation you are having. You should be given an opportunity to discuss the operation with your surgeon. This might happen at the pre-assessment clinic. You will need to sign a consent form to say that you agree to the operation. No operation will be done without your consent.


Giving up smoking

If you smoke, try to give up or cut down before your operation. This will help reduce your risk of chest problems, such as a chest infection. It will also help your wound to heal after the operation. Your GP can give you advice and support to give up smoking. You may find it helpful to read section about giving up smoking.


Enhanced recovery programmes

Some hospitals follow an enhanced recovery programme. This aims to reduce the time you spend in hospital and speed up your recovery. It involves you more in your own care. For example, you’ll be given information about diet and exercise before surgery. You may also be given supplement drinks to take. The hospital will make sure any arrangements needed for you to go home are organised for you.


Preparation for an operation

Before any operation you’ll be asked not to eat or drink anything for a few hours. This is known as being ’nil-by-mouth’.

You may also need to bathe and shave body hair from the area of the operation. The nurse looking after you will give you more details about this. Body hair is only shaved if it’s essential. It’s done using a disposable razor and the hair will begin to grow back after the operation.

Having an operation can put you at risk of developing a blood clot in the leg. Compression stockings (also known as anti-embolic stockings) help to reduce this risk. You might be asked to wear a pair of compression stockings during your operation and for a short period afterwards. A nurse will assess your individual risk and take your measurements. You will then be shown how to put the stockings on properly.

Back to Surgery explained

Surgery for kidney cancer

Surgery may be the only treatment you need. The operation you have will depend on the stage of the cancer.

Who might I meet?

A team of specialists will plan your surgery. This will include a surgeon who specialises in your type of cancer.

What happens after surgery?

You’ll be monitored very closely after your operation. You will be tired so it’s important to rest and look after yourself.