What happens after surgery?

When you wake up after surgery you will probably still be very drowsy. You may not remember much about the first few hours. You may have some tubes attached to your body, such as a drip (intravenous infusion) to give you fluids until you’re able to eat and drink normally. A nurse will check your blood pressure regularly. The nurses will give you drugs to help control any pain or sickness. Always let them know if you’re in pain or feel sick.

When you’re fully awake, the ward staff will help you get up and move about, which will help you to recover quicker.

Your wound will be closed with clips or stitches. If it feels hot or painful, bleeds or leaks fluid, let your doctor know straight away.

You may find you need time to regain and rebuild your physical and emotional health. Your doctor will explain what to expect.

After your operation, try not to expect too much of yourself. How long it takes you to recover will depend on the type of operation you have had.

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When you wake up after surgery

Knowing what will happen when you wake up after your operation can help you feel less anxious. It also prepares your family and friends for what to expect.

You will probably feel quite drowsy and may not remember much about the first couple of hours after you wake up. A nurse will take your blood pressure regularly so you might be aware of the blood pressure cuff tightening on your arm every so often.

Depending on the operation you have you may have some tubes attached to your body. If you had a small operation you may not have any tubes at all. Here’s a list of the most common types of tubes to have following an operation:

  • A drip (intravenous infusion) to give you fluids until you are able to eat and drink normally. This may only be for a few hours or a few days, depending on the operation you’ve had.
  • You may have a tube (drain) in your wound to drain excess fluid into a small bottle. This is usually removed after a few days.
  • A small tube (catheter) may be put into your bladder so that urine is drained into a collection bag. The catheter is usually removed when you start walking about.
  • Some people may have a tube that goes up the nose and down into the stomach. It’s called a naso-gastric tube and is used to remove fluid from the stomach until the bowel starts working again.

Not everyone will need all of these.    

After surgery


You may have some pain after surgery, but this will be controlled with painkillers.

You can also have pain killers as tablets or as injections, or through a tube into a vein in your hand or arm (cannula) connected to a pump. The pain control you’llneed will depend on the operation you’ve had. Some people have a continuous dose of painkiller into the spinal fluid through a fine tube and a pump. This is called an epidural. Always let the nurse know if you are still in pain.Before you go home, your pain will be controlled by tablets. You’ll be given a prescription for painkillers you can take at home as needed.

You may still have some aches and twinges close to the scar for several weeks after surgery.

Feeling sick (nausea) and being sick (vomiting)

The nurse will give you anti-sickness (anti-emetic) injections or drugs to help control any sickness. If you still feel sick, tell the nurse looking after you.

Moving around

You will be encouraged to get up fairly soon after your operation. The ward staff will help you with this as you may need some help to wash and go to the toilet. Once you are moving about more freely, you’ll probably be able to manage this for yourself.

Moving around will help you recover more quickly and help reduce the risk of complications.

Breathing and leg exercises can also help reduce the risk of problems that can happen after surgery, such as chest infections and blood clots. Your nurse or physiotherapist will teach you these exercises. You may also be given medication to help prevent blood clots forming in the first few days after your surgery. This is known as an anti-coagulant. It is given as an injection into the tissues just under the skin, usually in your tummy.

Wound care

The wound is closed using clips or stitches. These are usually removed after you go home by a practice nurse at your GP surgery. Some surgeons use dissolving stitches that don’t need to be removed. These will dissolve completely when the area is healed. You may be given antibiotics to help prevent wound infection.

It's important to let your nurse or doctor know straight away if your wound becomes hot, painful or begins to bleed or leak any fluids, even after you go home.


Your scar may feel itchy at first. It will look like a red line, which may feel a bit lumpy. This will gradually fade over time.

After surgery you will have to take things slowly and easily to build up your strength. This is doable and you will do it and get through it.

Christine, affected by cancer

Possible complications of surgery

The most common complications after surgery are a wound infection, bleeding, a chest infection or a blood clot.

The nurses will monitor you for these. Let them know straight away if you feel unwell, have any bleeding, or notice swelling and redness in a limb. You should also tell them if you have symptoms of an infection, such as a cough or discharge from your wound.

After open surgery to the kidney, some people develop a bulge along their scar. Doctors call this an incisional hernia. It can happen because of weakness in the muscles around the scar.

Going home

How long you stay in hospital depends on the type of operation you have and how quickly you recover. After laparoscopic surgery, most people are home within 2–5 days. After an open operation, most people are home within 5–7 days. It’s common to feel more tired than usual for about six weeks after the operation. Most people feel fully recovered after about 12 weeks.

Your surgeon or nurse can tell you when you’ll be able to get back to doing everyday activities, like shopping, gardening, driving, having sex, playing sport or going to work.

Back to Surgery explained

Surgery for kidney cancer

Surgery may be the only treatment you need. The operation you have will depend on the stage of the cancer.

Who might I meet?

A team of specialists will plan your surgery. This will include a surgeon who specialises in your type of cancer.