The main treatments for cancer are chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, hormonal therapy and targeted therapy.
They affect fertility in different ways. Some treatments can:
- stop or slow down sperm production
- damage the cells (germ cells) that produce sperm
- damage nerve endings or blood vessels in the pelvic area, leading to problems with erections or ejaculation
- affect hormone (testosterone) production.
After treatment, you can have your sperm tested regularly to find out if you’ve started to produce healthy sperm again.
Being able to get an erection and ejaculate does not always mean that you are fertile. Sometimes the semen may not have sperm in it.